PADI Foundation Awards $330,000 US to Grant Recipients

The PADI Foundation awarded more than $330,000 US in grants in 2019 to encourage and support research and education related to marine environments. Every year, the PADI Foundation funds worthwhile projects that improve understanding of: aquatic environments and encourage protection of ecosystems; people’s relationship and ability to survive in the underwater environment to benefit the scientific community and general diving public; hazards to humans and ecosystems related to climate change in coastal and ocean environments to advance response measures.

Since 1992, the PADI Foundation has awarded nearly $4.7 million US to almost 900 projects. A 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, the PADI Foundation is a separate and distinct organization, corporately unrelated to PADI® and its affiliates, but was established and is funded by PADI.

In 2019, out of more than 400 grant applications 64 projects were selected to receive a total of $332,568 US in grant money. Projects in 20 countries around the globe were funded, including:

  • Exploring unique Omani kelp forests to transform global underwater forest conservation
  • Coral monitoring and restoration in Utila, Honduras
  • Spatial ecology from above: Incorporating drones in identifying populations and habitats of dugongs and sea turtles in Johor, Malaysia
  • PADI Foundation Leaders Initiative Scholarship: Developing diverse marine science leaders through education and mentorship
  • Implication to water quality in the context of climate change: Nutrients and potential mobility of phosphorus in mangrove sediments with different land use pattern in southern Vietnam
  • Assessing the conservation status and developing awareness of sharks and rays in the northern coastline of Cameroon
  • Partnering with the offshore sailing community to monitor marine microplastic pollution
  • Mapping and modeling of the Seattle Fault tsunami inundation in Puget Sound
  • Implementing disease intervention strategies on corals in the southeast Florida reef tract and assessing their potential impact on mucus microbial communities
  • Zooplankton plastivory: First approach on microplastics in Antarctic coastal environments

“The recipients of the PADI Foundation grants reinforce my hope for the future and share in our mission to be a force for good,” says Drew Richardson, President and CEO of PADI Worldwide. “These individuals are combining their unique talents and passion to identify issues, provide understanding and solutions to mitigate the problems that threaten our ocean planet, and further enable and encourage underwater exploration. The PADI organization is honored to support them in their efforts, both at the local level and on a global scale.”

Each year, the PADI Foundation Board of Directors and advisory council of subject matter experts consider proposals with budgets up to $20,000 US, although the average award ranges from $5,000 to $10,000 US. Applications for consideration in 2020 may be submitted beginning 1 November 2019, and no later than 10 January 2020. Learn more at

Understanding Oxygen Toxicity

Written by DAN Staff

It’s rare to be on a dive boat without seeing someone diving enriched air nitrox, and considering the popularity of the PADI Enriched Air Diver course, this is not too surprising. Enriched air offers longer bottom times and shorter surface intervals, but it also comes with additional considerations and potential hazards, such as oxygen toxicity.

Oxygen toxicity can easily be  avoided by recreational divers, but should it occur underwater, it can be deadly. Every enriched air diver needs to understands the basics of oxygen toxicity and know how to avoid it. Here are a few reminders and suggestions for reducing risk.

What is Oxygen Toxicity?

Breathing oxygen at increased partial pressure for prolonged periods can have harmful effects on the body. There are two types of oxygen toxicity that divers should know about.

The first is pulmonary oxygen toxicity. It’s of less concern to divers because it results from prolonged breathing of high concentrations of oxygen, such as  while undergoing hyperbaric chamber therapy or breathing 100 percent oxygen during an extended evacuation. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity involves time periods that exceed the length of a dive, so it will typically be encountered on land following hours or days of oxygen administration.

It often begins with airway inflammation, which then spreads to the lungs. There, alveolar damage and/or collapse and decline in lung function may occur. Damage caused by this type of oxygen toxicity is entirely reversible.

The type of oxygen toxicity that is of serious concern to divers is central nervous system (CNS) oxygen toxicity. CNS oxygen toxicity can occur with very short exposures to significantly elevated partial pressures of oxygen and can affect any diver who exceeds or improperly calculates the maximum depth of their gas mix. This type of toxicity affects the tissues of the brain and spinal cord, and it can arise suddenly, causing vital tissue damage or seizures. Less serious symptoms of oxygen toxicity (lip or eye twitching, confusion and anxiety, among others) are unreliable indicators; in many instances convulsions present with no precursors.

If a diver begins convulsing underwater, drowning is possible if the diver loses the ability to keep a regulator in the mouth. Getting the diver to the surface is the best course of action if a seizure occurs.

Reduce the Risk

While even divers breathing air are at risk for oxygen toxicity if they exceed recreational limits, it’s mostly a concern for divers breathing enriched air or using rebreathers. Divers need to be certified as enriched air or rebreather divers if they want to breathe a gas mixture with more than 21 percent oxygen. Even with proper training and certification, it doesn’t hurt to monitor the gas analysis and oxygen exposure calculations of the divers you’re supervising. Being ready to refresh procedures or answer questions about gas mix testing and dive planning is in everyone’s best interest.

As the gas blender and cylinder provider, you want to be sure that your fill station is properly maintained, staff who fill cylinders have proper credentials, and that you follow all fill station documentation and logging procedures. Doing this is your responsibility as a dive professional or business owner, but it will also shows your customers that you care about their well-being and enjoyment.

For information about diving maladies, visit

Reserve Your Room Now for the 2019 DEMA Show

Already know you’re headed to Orlando, Florida, USA this year for the 2019 DEMA Show from 13-16 November?

Be one of the first to book your room at the Rosen Plaza Hotel located near the West Hall of the Orange County Convention Center. Contact PADI Travel to secure the special room rate of  $192 US (+ tax and resort fee).

PADI® programs, such as the Course Director Update, Emergency First Response® Instructor Trainer course, PADI Business Academy and the PADI Social will take place in the Rosen Plaza Hotel, so you’ll be staying in the center of the action.

Email PADI Travel, or call 866 646 2187 to reserve your room today.

Insurance Renewal Coming Soon

My painful insurance lesson.

I worked for a dive operation that catered to high-end customers. We were a team of four – two instructors and two divemasters. On one particular trip, the thing we all dread occurred – one of the divers was severely injured. Jack was participating in a specialty training dive with me as the instructor and Jane (also an instructor) was serving as a certified assistant. Divemaster Bob was with our group and Divemaster Brad was aboard the boat helping divers enter and exit the water.

As Jack was boarding the boat following the dive, the fingers of his dominant hand ended up between the ladder and the boat, resulting in one amputation and de-gloving of three other fingers. We were able to provide immediate first aid and Jack was transported to the nearest medical facility for treatment.

Jack was hospitalized for a couple weeks as he contracted a severe infection while in the hospital. In addition, there were months of physical therapy and it was unknown whether Jack, the father of three, would be able to return to the operating room where he was chief of neurosurgery at a large hospital.

Obviously, worry set in. While our team did everything we could, and our actions did not contribute to the severe infection, we were concerned. We talked openly with our insurance and risk management team and prepared for the worst.

Jack’s annual income was more than $500,000 US. And, he was the sole breadwinner for his family. Estimates were that if a suit were to be filed, the damages (loss of income, medical expenses, pain and suffering, permanent disfigurement, etc.,) would be well in excess of $1,000,000 US. However, with potentially at least four of us listed as defendants (not considering the boat, boat owner, tour booking company, etc.), we expected our collective insurance policies would place $4,000,000 US on the table. Being responsible, prudent dive pros, we had each purchased our own insurance coverage, paying the full premium, with a Certificate of Insurance and Declarations Page saying we each had $1,000,000 US in coverage. . . until you read the fine print.

We were told (and shown in black and white) that the policy language stated, regardless of the number of insureds (four of us), the most the policy would pay was $1,000,000 US for any one incident. WHAT?!?!?

So, what did we pay for? We were not insured under a group policy, but each submitted our application and our premium to the insurance team with the expectation that we would each have $1,000,000 in coverage.

As it turned out, Jack did not file a lawsuit. He acknowledged that he had some contribution to the incident, but he did suffer terribly and it was nearly a year before he was able to fully work again. During this time we also suffered – the emotional stress of not knowing if and when the axe will drop.

Lesson Learned

Read the fine print. If you don’t understand something – ask. Ask for a comparison of the insurance policies you are considering. Do your homework. Don’t just blindly buy the cheapest or the newest insurance offering.

Note: In the above scenario, the PADI-endorsed program would provide $1,000,000 US in coverage for each dive pro, plus unlimited defense costs.*

*Subject to policy terms and conditions.

Coming Soon – Insurance Renewal

PADI® Dive Centers and Resorts deserve the industry’s highest rated and most affordable insurance available in the industry. Unfortunately, many business owners don’t take the time to really understand their policies – regardless of the provider. Those who don’t fully consider their business needs can make the wrong choices and end up with sub-par coverage offered by other industry carriers. Take a moment to stay informed and avoid costly mistakes. You’ll thank yourself later!

Here’s a scenario that shows what can happen when a dive center owner did not take advantage of PADI-endorsed Dive Center and Resort Insurance:

“I have been a dive center owner for six years, and like many dive operations I have never had a claim and never paid much attention to the coverage details of my property policy. Unfortunately one morning our compressor malfunctioned and started a small fire. This fire destroyed $50,000 US worth of my property. Due to the coinsurance provision (a detail I did not pay attention to), our claim payment was significantly less than the amount of the property I lost. Over the last six years my business has grown, but during the renewal periods I always told my broker to use the same coverage limit for our Business Personal Property. I had more rental equipment and a larger inventory of retail equipment. I had a coverage limit of $100,000 US, but the replacement cost of all my property was actually $200,000 US. I originally thought I was fully covered (less my $1,000 deductible) because the loss was only $50,000 US and I had a $100,000 US coverage limit. However, I quickly learned about the 80 percent coinsurance requirement and that it meant I was required to have a coverage limit of at least 80 percent ($160,000 US) of my total Business Personal Property replacement cost value. I was only insuring to 50 percent ($100,000 US) of my total property replacement cost value. Because of the coinsurance penalty being assessed, I only received a $30,500 US claim payment instead of the $49,000 US claim payment I expected. Not paying attention to, and not understanding, coinsurance cost me $18,500 US. I will make sure to purchase a property policy without a coinsurance requirement from now on.”

Stay protected and profitable by choosing PADI-endorsed Dive Center and Resort Insurance, which doesn’t have a coinsurance clause. The 2019-2020 policy details and applications will be sent to each PADI Retail and Resort Association Member prior to the renewal deadline of 30 June 2019.

Tips for Writing a Corporate EFR Proposal

A corporate client can generate thousands of dollars in income over the long term. In addition to creating a new revenue stream, you’ll increase awareness about your business and generate referrals. According to the Washington Post, small businesses experience an average revenue increase of more than 260 percent after adding their first corporate client.

In this article, we’ll review some important do’s and don’ts when pitching a large company. We’ll also share some time-saving tips and templates to make creating a corporate proposal as easy as possible.

Start with a list of 4-6 target companies – Conduct online research to identify the largest employers in your area, then narrow your list to companies in close proximity to your store.

Also include businesses where you have a personal connection. LinkedIn can be a great way to identify corporate contacts. Here are a few ways to find people you know on LinkedIn.


A “warm” lead is better than a cold call. If you know someone who works at a large company, ask them the best person to contact. Most corporate pitches go to the Human Resources department, but you’re just as likely to succeed by reaching out to a department manager or supervisor.

Do some online research – Google the companies on your shortlist. Read recent press releases and news stories for potential “ins.” Consider what the company’s goals might be, future concerns, and how your training offers a solution. Here are a few reasons a business may need to hire a CPR and first aid instructor:

-Changes to local or federal regulations
-A significant number of new hires
-Opening a new location
-As part of a Corporate Emergency Response Plan

Gather testimonials – Let customers do the selling for you. If you don’t already have testimonials, contact past customers and ask for a quote. If you don’t have a lot of EFR experience, ask your dive students to write something about you or your instructors’ teaching ability. Include one or two testimonials in your letter, and add as many as possible to your website.

Use our proposal templates – Download a sample proposal letter (Word Doc) from the EFR Pros Site or preview it here as a PDF. You might also enclose this flyer summarizing the benefits of the first aid and CPR training (PDF) you offer, or 7 Steps to Setting up a Comprehensive AED Program (PDF).

Answer the question, “Why Choose Us” – In the letter, mention at least one thing that’s special about your business. Corporations may be looking to support minority, veteran or female-owned businesses. Maybe you’re a graduate of the local university, or you support a local non-profit. Include something in your letter to differentiate your business from “average” CPR and first aid course providers.

Customize each proposal letter – Writing the same letter to each company is a huge DON’T. Tailor each letter to a specific company’s needs based on your online research. Focus on problems and solutions, anticipate and overcome objections

  • Position Emergency First Response© as a solution to potential problems. For example:Keeping track of government regulations is a challenge. At Emergency First Response, we specialize in providing CPR, AED and first aid training to meet workplace requirements for companies just like yours.
  • Anticipate potential objections such lost productivity:Emergency First Response training is designed to minimize the amount of time in the classroom and away from the job. Student materials are designed with an independent-study component which develops foundation information and allows the instructor to focus time on skill practice rather than lecture time. This reduces classroom time while increasing skill retention. This model is proven to inspire student confidence provide care when a medical emergency arises.
  • …or a lack of familiarity with EFR:Emergency First Response courses include state-of-the-art educational material designed to provide scheduling flexibility. Our first aid, CPR and AED courses meet or exceed standards set by ILCOR, OSHA, and the US Coast Guard to name a few. I’d be happy to send you a sample of our student materials for you to review.

Less is more – Assume the potential customer won’t read your letter in its entirety. Make sure your key points stand out by:

  • Adding bullet points
  • Putting important words or sentences in bold
  • Using sub-headers to break up long paragraphs

Ask someone proof your letter or email before sending – After rewriting a document multiple times it can be easy to leave out a key detail like your contact info, or overlook small typos.

Be persistent (but not annoying)
Big companies move slowly. Landing a contract can be a year-long project, especially if the company hasn’t allocated funds for CPR training in this year’s budget.

After a week or two, call or send a follow-up postcard. If, after two or three follow-ups you haven’t received a response, try something memorable. Send a workplace safety-related tchotchke such as an EFR barrier keychain (product no. 80079), or phone to let them know about a “limited time offer.”

efr corporate proposal

Submitting a Request for Proposal (RFP)
Large companies and government agencies may put their CPR and first aid training needs up for bid. If this happens, they will direct you to a request for proposal (RFP), which is basically a proposal template. Review this information from the EFR Pros Site regarding developing a winning bid for RFPs.

Questions? We’re here to help
If you’re feeling overwhelmed, just start with step one. Make a list of companies in your area, and find out where you already have a contact. The EFR marketing toolbox has numerous customizable postcard and flyer options including refresher training reminders and other collateral, and don’t forget your PADI regional team is here to help.

PADI/GoPro Evolution Video Contest Kicks Off

PADI® is partnering with GoPro to present the three-part Evolution video contest series, which will run through October 2019. Whether it’s a sunken ship in your favorite quarry, an unforgettable turtle encounter or a freedive over a vivid reef, you and your divers have a shot at winning valuable prizes as you show off your video and editing skills. Best of all, the contests are a chance to increase your business by offering specialty courses and camera sales.

The CAPTURE contest, which is open for entries from 15 April – 30 May, asks divers, who are at least 18 years old, to simply capture an amazing underwater experience; the second contest, EDIT, is open 1 July – 15 August and tests your editing skills with a series of clips provided by GoPro; the final contest, CAPTURE/EDIT, opens 16 September – 31 October and requires you put everything together – capturing and editing – into one awesome story.

The three contests are open to everyone – amateurs and pros alike – and, beyond just being fun, offer incredible opportunities to boost your business:

  • Teach underwater photography. While divers can get tips on how to capture and edit amazing underwater footage from GoPro professionals, consider cross promoting the contest with a PADI Digital Underwater Photographer specialty course. Either offer the specialty on request, or schedule a handful of courses throughout the duration of the contest period (essentially, all of 2019). When selling the Digital Underwater Photographer specialty, point out to your divers that they’ll likely be able to shoot footage during the course that they can then enter in the contest!
  • Consider other specialties. Digital Underwater Photographer isn’t the only specialty you can promote – there are a number of great courses that tie in nicely not just with the contest, but with digital underwater photography as well. Peak Performance Buoyancy is an obvious tie-in because peak buoyancy makes underwater photography more rewarding; Fish Identification teaches divers to identify fish and understand fish behavior better; and, the Boat Diver and Wreck Diver specialties can get divers to environments they may not have dived before, for exciting new encounters. What’s more, if your divers take enough of these specialties, they’re on their way to PADI Master Scuba DiverTM.
  • Sell the hardware. Finally, take this opportunity to sell more GoPro cameras and accessories, or if you don’t currently sell GoPro, consider adding them to you inventory. Only videos shot on a GoPro can be entered into the Evolution contest, so what better way of promoting the sale of GoPro cameras and accessories than by featuring them right next to information about the contests!

To help you promote the PADI/GoPro Evolution contest to your divers, there is a full range of marketing collateral and resources on the PADI Pros’ Site. Happy shooting!

Jamaica’s Underwater Trailblazer

When Michael Clarke became a PADI Course Director in 2017, it marked not only a special moment in his career but also one for Jamaica – Clarke was Jamaica’s first PADI Course Director under the family-owned Sandals Resorts International (SRI) which includes Sandals and Beaches Resorts, the Caribbean’s leading all-inclusive resort company. Since then, Clarke has certified over 132 instructors for SRI.

Michael Clarke

Clarke lived and worked on his home island of Jamaica until 2004 when he relocated to Beaches Turks & Caicos, for the next seven years where he ran the brand’s largest dive shop until returning home to Jamaica for a promotion as the Group Watersports Director for SRI. Today, Clarke, along with the rest of the Sandals and Beaches Resorts team, operates 17 different dive shops across its chain of resorts spanning seven Caribbean islands and have certified over 100,000 divers. Sandals and Beaches Resorts also currently have 81 PADI Elite Instructors on staff.

“This for me was an emotional time as I never dreamed that I would be a course director and most of all the first Jamaican one,” he says. “Being able to transfer knowledge and years of experience onto someone that will change their lives for the better is such a humbling experience.”

Through his work in the diving community, Clarke became a mentor for others in the Caribbean communities in which Sandals operates. As an attraction for divers around the world, Clarke, and the PADI certified Sandals and Beaches dive team at each resort’s Aqua Center discovered that guests appreciated the authenticity of having locals guide them on their favorite dive sites and reefs. Best of all, certified divers can dive daily during their resort stay… it’s all inclusive!

“We have really great wall dives that make for spectacular dive sites,” Clarke says.

Michael Clarke and Sandals team

With the growing interest for diving among the local community, Clarke and the Sandals team decided to host an IDC for five Divemasters as a way to inspire other divers and raise interest in scuba diving to the rest of the Jamaican community. 

“For me, this is only the beginning as we have so many people, not only at Sandals but in the respective Islands that want an opportunity to become instructors,” Clarke says. So my goal is to promote and inspire Caribbean people to become dive professionals.”

In addition to completing a structured IDC with the PADI and Sandals staff, the five candidates also received hands-on experience with overnight stays on the property. The IDC ended with an award ceremony to commemorate their successes.

The growing diving community in Jamaica has also brought awareness to the importance of conservation in the underwater world. In March, the Sandals Foundation celebrated 10 years of fulfilling its promise to the Caribbean community of investment in sustainable projects, from the implementation of Marine Protect Areas (MPAs) to planting coral reef nurseries for transplantation, while also assisting with ongoing cleanup efforts on the islands by establishing national and international events. The Sandals Foundation has already invested in countless projects and programs that support conservation and environmental awareness, and the Foundation has committed to engaging 100,000 people in protection and conservation over the next 10 years. To learn more about the Sandals Foundation visit

“The goal is to get more people into diving through internship programs and continue to work along with the Sandals Foundation through environmental programs,” Clarke says. “We want to make our guests aware of how important it is to protect the underwater world.”

Michael Clarke

“To date, the Sandals Foundation manages two Marine Protect Areas (MPAs). They’ve funded the development of coral reef nurseries in Jamaica and St. Lucia and they have made environmental education for communities and schools a major priority through funding programs such as the Guy Harvey Ocean Foundation’s Save our Seas School program, Floating Classrooms, Ride to Save the Wetlands and distributing thousands of reusable water bottles and grocery bags spreading the importance on the reduction of plastics.” -Heidi Clarke, Executive Director, Sandals Foundation

With the long list of accomplishments that Clarke and the Sandals team have already achieved, the outlook for the future of Jamaica as well as the other Caribbean communities where Sandals Resorts International operates, and its divers is looking pretty bright.

New Partnership with IBCCES

PADI Worldwide and the International Board of Credentialing and Continuing Education Standards (IBCCES) have collaborated to bring the Certified Autism Center™ program to PADI Dive Centers and Resorts. The Certified Autism Center designation recognizes businesses trained in autism sensitivity and awareness, and  go above and beyond to better serve customers with autism and other cognitive disorders. The alliance will make IBCCES training and certification available to PADI® Dive Centers and Resorts. After becoming a Certified Autism Center, dive centers and resorts receive ongoing marketing support from IBCCES, enabling them to reach more than 20 million families around the globe who have children with autism.

Research shows that engaging in stimulating experiences such as travel, animal interaction, outdoor play and water activities is therapeutic for children and individuals on the autism spectrum. With one in 59 children diagnosed with autism in the U.S., special-needs travel is the fastest growing family travel segment. According to a recent study of 1,000 parents with a child on the spectrum, 87 percent would be more inclined to visit a center where staff are trained and certified.

To earn the Certified Autism Center designation, your dive center or resort  works with IBCCES to train at least 80 percent of your customer-facing staff so they have the requisite knowledge, skills, temperament and expertise to interact with  families and children with special needs, specifically on the autism spectrum. Training covers the topics of sensory awareness, environment, communication, motor and social skills, program development and emotional awareness. Training must be taken every two years to maintain the certification.

Several PADI Dive Centers and Resorts have already completed the IBCCES certification including Sandals/Beaches Resorts in the Caribbean and PADI Five Star Dive Center First Coast Divers in Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

“This training opened my eyes to a whole new market and also helped me better understand many of our current customers,” said Dan Mechelke, General Manager of First Coast Divers, which became a Certified Autism Center in March 2019.

“We want every family to be able to enjoy the incredible Caribbean diving that Beaches Resorts offer daily,” said PADI Course Director Michael Clarke, Sandals Resorts International’s Group Watersports Director. “Two years ago when we introduced Beaches autism-friendly resorts program, we became the first resort company in the world to be distinguished by IBCCES. Now, Beaches Resorts is proudly taking our commitment to inclusivity for families with children on the spectrum to the next level as an Advanced Certified Autism Center. Through our longstanding PADI partnership and a mutual collaboration with IBCCES, we’re ensuring that all our guests have the opportunity to experience our world class dive destinations.”

In addition to increased staff confidence, you can benefit from this training by gaining access to a large under-served market, along with increased revenue and retail sales. If you’re interested in making your dive center or resort an ideal destination for customers with autism and other sensory disorders, visit

Responding to Neurological DCS

Neurological symptoms are not the most common symptoms of DCS, but their onset can be rapid and their consequences serious. These symptoms can also be difficult to manage in the field. Much like a stroke, neurological DCS requires a rapid response, so it’s critical for you to be able to identify and respond quickly and correctly. These symptoms can be both highly variable and undetectable to the person experiencing them, so knowing how to assess a diver after a dive can make all the difference.

Signs and Symptoms

The symptoms of and proper response to neurological DCS are very similar to dealing with a stroke. DCS that affects the brain and nervous system can manifest in many ways, but here is a list of the most common neurological symptoms:

  • Confusion
  • Numbness
  • Paresthesia (a “pins and needles” sensation)
  • Muscle weakness
  • Difficulty walking
  • Problems with physical coordination or bladder control

You’ll notice that many of these are also symptoms of stroke, so following the FAST (face, arm, speech, time) model for identifying a stroke is an effective way to begin analyzing someone with suspected neurological DCS. Whenever you suspect a stroke or neurological DCS, assume the worst-case scenario and respond accordingly.


Once you’ve identified symptoms of suspected neurological DCS, your first response should always be to activate emergency medical services. Whether you’re offshore and need a complex evacuation or you’re diving minutes from the nearest hospital, it’s critical that the injured diver reaches qualified treatment as quickly as possible.

The American Heart Association (AHA) currently recommends a 60-minute door-to-door policy for suspected strokes. For example, no more than one hour should pass from the time a stroke is identified to the time that stroke victim receives treatment in a hospital. This same window of time — or an even smaller one — should be the goal for injured divers. The biggest factor in promoting positive outcomes for injured divers is rapid access to definitive care.

After emergency services are activated, provide care for the injured diver to the best of your ability. Administer emergency oxygen and make the diver comfortable while waiting for help, and if you have additional training, perform a neurological assessment and provide a detailed report to first responders. As long as you act within the limits of your training, your quick response and care will ultimately help the injured diver get the best possible outcome.

For information on neurological assessments, DCS response, or advanced first aid training visit